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3. Referenced literature and illustrations

BA Art History

3.1 Title description of a book

Place of publication
Year of publication
3.1 Titel description of a book
3.2 Article in a journal or yearbook

3.2 Title description of an article in a journal or yearbook

When you describe an article in the bibliography, list the following parts:

  • the author(s)        

  • title of the cited article between double quotation marks

  • title of the journal in italics 

  • journal details: volume and issue number, number of the instalment (only if a volume is not numbered, see below) year in parentheses, semicolon. 

  • page numbers (you may abbreviate to: p. (singular) or to pp. (plural). For instance: pp. 1-100 means page 1 up to and including 100. Within the Chicago style this is however not mandatory)


If the article is from a journal and if all components are listed, a title description looks like:

Westgeest, H.F. “Photography and painting in multi-mediating pictures.” Visual studies 24 (2009): 122-131. 

De Jongh, E. "Het Lam Gods", Kunstschrift 43, 6 (1999): 32-39. 

The article in question is on pages 32 up to and including 39 in issue 6 of the 43rd volume from 1999.


Most 'classic' journals are published four times per calendar year. These four issues together form one volume and have a continuous pagination. This applies, for example, to: The Art Bulletin, The Burlington Magazine, Oud Holland, Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (J.S.A.H.) etc. Because the individual issues of such a journal are usually bundled over time, you do not need to list the number of the issue. As there is a whole volume 89 from 2007 from The Art Bulletin but only one page 788.

For instance:

Miedema, H. "De St. Lucasgilden van Haarlem en Delft in de zestiende eeuw." Oud Holland  99 (1985): 77-109.


If a journal does not have continuous numbering, but each issue starts their pagination from 1, it is essential to list the issue number. A reference like 'page 8 in volume 28 from 2006' is not enough. Volumes of such a journal usually consist of twelve or sometimes four issues per year and each issue has its 'own' page 8. Examples are: Jong Holland, De Architect, Kunstschrift, Monumenten, Museumvisie, Bulletin van de Koninklijke Oudheidkundige Bond, et cetera. In these cases the issue number is essential to the title description.

For instance:

Lansink, H. "Het Museumplein in Amsterdam: Een historisch overzicht"Jong Holland: Tijdschrift voor kunst en vormgeving na 1850 15, 2 (1999): 6-13.

The article in question is on pages 6 up to and including 13 in issue 2 of volume 15 from 1999.


Some journals no longer use volumes, but instead the numbering of the individual issues continues through all calendar years. Examples are: Lotus International, Daidalos, Oppositions and Revue de l’Art. In this case too, the issue number is essential to the title description. 

For instance:

Anderson, S. "Modern architecture and industry: Peter Behrens, the AEG, and industrial design." Oppositions, 21 (1980): 78-97.

The article in question can be found in issue 21. 


Some journals are only published once a year and such a publication is persistently called an 'issue'. It would be more correct, bibliographically, to refer to this as a 'volume' and then apply the rules for the title description of a volume.

For instance:

Boschloo, A.W.A."Over Bamboccianten en kikvorsen." Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 23 (1972): 191-202.

The article in question can be found in volume 23 of the NKJ from 1972.


If the title of the article contains a quote, this quote is placed between double quotation marks. This results in the title description of such an article beginning with triple quotation marks (double because of the quote and single because it is an article).

For instance:

Dickey, S. "'Met een wenende ziel...doch droge ogen': Women holding handkerchiefs in seventeenth-century Dutch portraits." Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 46 (1995): 335-367.

If you consulted any literature for your paper, you must cite your sources in footnotes or endnotes and a bibliography. This means that you must be able to compile a title description of a book or article and create footnotes or endnotes.

There are many so-called reference styles which enable you to cite your sources. In the Humanities the use of the Chicago Style, is very common. We will use this style here as well.


A title description may refer to four substantially different types of publications. Each must be described in its own way: 

  1. a book

  2. an article in a journal

  3. an article in an edited volume

  4. a collection or exhibition catalogue. 


The title description of a book consists of the following three main components:

1.    author(s)

2.    title

3.    place of publication, name of publisher and year of publication.


These bibliographic units are separated by periods, a colon and closed with a period.

For instance:

Bryzgel, A. Performance art in Eastern Europe since 1960. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1985



List all initials of the author, but without titles (prof., dr., Mr, Sir, etc.).

You can place the initial(s) after or before the author's surname, as long as you consistently use the same method: Pietersen, P. or P. Pietersen.

In the latter case, keep in mind compound surnames. If you put the surname first, H. van der Grinten becomes Grinten, H. van der.


In the case of a double surname, the first part of the surname is listed first: Prof.dr. Th.H. Lunsingh Scheurleer becomes: Lunsingh Scheurleer, Th.H. 

Jonkheer J.A. van Lidt de Jeude becomes: Lidt de Jeude, J.A. van

In notes with an abbreviated title description, only list the surname (see two note systems, Quotes and Notes, page 28).


For two and three author names you must list both/all names, separated by a comma; if there are more than three authors you add, after the third name: , et al. (= and others). Exhibition catalogues and bundles often have multiple authors and an editor-in-chief. In that case, only the editor-in-chief is listed: Silve, S. (ed.)


Anonymous publications are listed in the bibliography by the first word of the title. If that word is an article, you use the first noun or adjective.

For instance:

Twintig jaar buismeubelen bij de Bijenkorf. The Hague: De Bijenkorf, 1975, is listed under the T. 

Het Belgische interieur in de 19de eeuw. Leuven: Interieurpers, 1984, is listed under the B.


For the title, always check the title page. This usually contains more information than the book cover. The subtitles, in particular, are left of the cover quite often.

  • Italicize title and subtitle (separated by a period).

  • Capitalize title and subtitle. 


For book titles in Dutch, the nouns and adjectives do not have to be capitalized. Proper nouns are of course capitalized.

For book titles in English, the nouns and adjectives can be capitalized. However, this is not mandatory but a common practice with most publishers.

For book titles in German, the nouns do need to be capitalized. This is a grammatical rule. Proper names are also capitalized.


For instance:

Grisebach, A. Carl Friedrich Schinkel: Architekt Städtebauer Mahler. Frankfurt am Main/Berlin: Ullstein Kunstbuch, 1983.


Pollitt, J.J. The Ancient View of Greek Art: Criticism, History and Terminology. New Haven/London: Pelican, 1974.

but also:

Pollitt, j.J. The ancient view of Greek art: Criticism, history and terminology. New Haven/London: Pelican, 1974.


You may be faced with the following complications: 

* if a book consists of multiple volumes, you must mention this after the title and subtitle. In a bibliography you list all parts, even if you only used one. Note: you indicate which specific part you have used in the notes.

For instance:

Pevsner, N. Studies in art, architecture and design. 2 volumes. London: Thames and Hudson, 1968.

* if a book belongs to a particular series, mention the name of the series and the serial number (if any) after the title. You leave out the words series and number.

For instance:

Eck, C. van. Art, Agency and Living Presence: From the Animated Image to the Excessive Object. Studien aus dem Warburg-Haus Band 16. Boston: De Gruyter, 2015.

Place of publication 

In English papers, list all place names in English: Paris, London, Nuremberg, Liege.

For two place names, both names should be listed, separated by a slash; for three (or more) names you add, after the second name: , etc.

For instance: Cambridge MA/London, etc.

(in this case, it is not Cambridge England, but Cambridge Massachusetts in the United States. The names of the different states of the US are rarely written in full but rather in the form of a standard abbreviation of two or three letters, without a period at the end: MA = Massachusetts, NY = New York, IL = Illinois, etc.).

You can find the place names on the title page or in the colophon. If there is a place name in the book, but it is not listed in the usual place, that is the colophon, but instead in, for instance, the foreword, then you must place the name in square brackets, like: [Munich].

If the place name is not included anywhere in the book, you must mention this as follows: N.p. That means: no place.



List the name of the publisher after the place of publication, separated by a colon.

For instance:

O’Malley, M. The business of art: Contracts and the commissioning process in Renaissance Italy. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 2005.

Year of publication

You can find the year of publication on the title page or the colophon. If there is a year of publication in the book, but it is not listed in the usual place, that is the title page, but instead in, for instance, the foreword, then you must place the year in square brackets, like: [2002]. 

If the year is not included anywhere in the book, you must mention this as follows: n.d. This means: no date.

If place name and year of publication are both not mentioned in the title page or in the colophon, but they can be found elsewhere in the book, you add for instance: [Amsterdam 1986]. If both the place name and the year are unknown, and cannot be found anywhere in the book, you get the following combination: N.p. n.d.

International publications use the following abbreviations (first column): 

Use, in that case, the English abbreviation (second column):

- etc.

- ed. (= edited/editor)

- Hrsg. (= Herausgeber/ Herausgegeben)

- réd. (= rédaction/ rédacteur)

- a cura di (= onder verantwoording van)

- s.l. (= sine loco)

- s.a. (= sine anno)






z.p. (= zonder plaats)

z.j. (= zonder jaartal)

3.3 Article in an edited collection
3.4 Collection or exhibition catalogue

3.4 Title description of a collection or exhibition catalogue

Important and common sources in Art History are the catalogues, which are subdivided into collection (or museum) catalogues and exhibition catalogues.


The title description of a catalogue is more or less similar to that of a book. That is true of anonymous catalogues, but also for catalogues that have one or more author (s) (see page 21 and 22 respectively). The only difference with a book is that for a catalogue you must add the following after the year of publication: ‘Mus. cat.’ or ‘Ex. cat.’ and the name of the museum and the place name.


Example of an anonymous collection catalogue:

Van Eyck to Bruegel 1400 to 1550: Dutch and Flemish painting in the collection of the Museum Boymans-van Beuningen.  Rotterdam, 1994. Mus. cat. Museum Boijmans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam.

Is listed in the bibliography under the E (of Van Eyck).


Example of a collection catalogue written by one author:

Blotkamp, C. Daubigny, Van Doesburg, Daniëls… en 88 andere hoogtepunten in de collectie moderne kunst van het Centraal Museum. Utrecht/Antwerp, 1987. Mus. cat. Centraal Museum, Utrecht.

Is listed under B (of Blotkamp).


Example of a collection catalogue written by more than one author:

Sluijter, E.J., Enklaar, M, Nieuwenhuizen, P. eds. Leidse fijnschilders: Van Gerrit Dou tot Frans van Mieris de Jonge, 1630-1760, Zwolle: Waanders, 1988. Ex. cat. Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal, Leiden.

Is listed under S (of Sluijter).

3.3 Title description of an article in an edited collection

 An edited collection (or edited volume) is a collection of essays by different authors, collected and introduced by an editor, in a book. If the article is from an edited collection, the title description is similar to that of an article in a journal, but there are a few different rules.


  • In the title description there are two author names: the writer of the article (first: most important) and the editor of the bundle. Always mention both names, even if the author of the article and the book is the same person.

  • Unlike in a journal article, you must add the word 'in' between the title of the article and the title of the publication in which the article appeared.


For instance:

    Banham, R. "The glass paradise" in: The anti-rationalists, edited by Richards, J.M., Pevsner, N., 187-192. London: Architectural Press, 1973.

Renders, Th. "Kunstenaarsorganisaties", in: De doorbraak van de moderne kunst in Nederland: De jaren 1945-1951, edited by Stokwis, W., 107-116. Amsterdam: Meulenhoff, 1984.

3.5 Bibliography

  • The bibliography forms the last part of your paper, after the illustrations and the list with the references to the origin of the illustrations (see Format Final Paper, page 15).

  • As a separate part of your paper the bibliography gets the heading: Bibliography or Consulted literature. The term Bibliography may only be used when the literature list is subdivided into different categories, such as: archives, books, journal articles, newspaper articles, web sources, etc.

  • The bibliography should be alphabetized. Anonymous publications are listed by the first word of the title. If that word is an article, you use the first noun or adjective.

  • Please list all, and only, literature that you mention in your paper (and that is mentioned in the notes) in the bibliography. There is no reason to number the books and articles in your bibliography. 

  • For Internet sources list the URL and the date on which you accessed the site. Check whether the page shows the date it was last updated, to see if the information is still current. Sometimes a website states: "if you want to refer to this page, please use this address...etc." If possible always use this URL address, because this is a permanent address (the so-called stable URL).

3.6 Quotes and notes

Explanatory and reference notes

When you repeat another person's words in a written text, you must quote them. There are rules for quotations. Quotes must be referenced in notes. Even if you do not literally quote but, for example, refer to certain ideas or a specific opinion of an author, you must reference this in notes. These are reference notes. Additionally, there are so-called explanatory notes. In an explanatory note you can, for instance, explain a viewpoint or nuance a dating.


Complete, quoted sentences are placed within double quotation marks. 

  • If you are only quoting part of a sentence, leaving out the beginning or the end, you must show this with three periods within the quotation marks, for example: "...learned a lot from Rembrandt".

  • If you leave out something in the middle of the quote, you must show this with three periods too, for example:

  • “...that Louis XIV ... ordered a lot of furniture”.

  • If you add something in the middle of a quote, put this in square brackets, for example:

  • "He [Rembrandt] painted daily." 

Compare in both these examples the order of the quotation mark and period. In the last example, the end of the sentence coincides with the end of the quoted sentence.

If you mention a book or journal title in the body of the text, you must always italicize it. If you mention the title of an article in the body of the text, you must always place it between double quotation marks. This corresponds to the rules for the title description in a bibliography (see Title Description, page 22).


Note number, footnotes and endnotes

The note numbers must always be in superscript and placed, as much as possible, at the end of sentence, directly after the period without a space.

In the literature you will find footnotes or endnotes. Footnotes are placed at the bottom of each page. It is customary to make sure that the note is on the page where the note number is mentioned in the text. Endnotes are listed directly after the body of the text (see Format Final Paper, page 15). For your first-year paper you will use shortened footnotes!


There are two systems to create notes.

I. Notes with an abbreviated title description (short form)

In this method, usually used in papers, the notes refer, in a shortened form, to the full titles in the bibliography. In the Chicago style the shortened form consists of the author's surname plus the page number(s). Because you might refer to different works by the same author we add the year of publication to surname in the short note. This way the reader can look up the right source in the bibliography. When using shortened footnotes a bibliography is essential and mandatory.

Notes can look like this:

  • 2. Boschloo 1972, 200.

  • 4. Sluijter 1993, 4-9.

  • 8. Sluijter 1993, 30.

II. Notes with full titles

This system includes notes in which the reader can find the full titles. The first time that a publication is mentioned, the full title is listed in the note. Every subsequent reference to the same publication can suffice with the name of the author, ‘ibidem’ of ‘op. cit.’ and reference to the note where the title was first listed.

The advantage of this method is that the notes form a comprehensive unit. A bibliography is unnecessary. Full notes are usually necessary for publications in journals.

For a journal article, a distinction must be made the first time you list the full title between the first and last page of the entire article and the page(s) to which you are referring.

For instance:

3. C.W. Fock, "Werkelijkheid of schijn: Het beeld van het Hollandse interieur in de zeventiende-eeuwse genreschilderkunst," Oud Holland 112, (1998): 187-246: 189-192.

(The entire article runs from page 187 up to and including 246 and the passage referred to can be found on pages 189 up to and including 192.)


When referring to a previous note with a complete title description a distinction must be made between a note that immediately precedes it and one that is further down than one note number from the first full note.

In the first case you use the term Ibid, which is short for ibidem, meaning 'in the same place'.

For instance:

  • 3. C.W. Fock, "Werkelijkheid of schijn: Het beeld van het Hollandse interieur in de zeventiende-eeuwse genreschilderkunst," Oud Holland 112 (1998): 187-246.

  • 4. Ibid., 189-192.


In the second case, you use the term op. cit., an abbreviation for opere citato, which means: 'in the work cited [previously]', in combination with the last name of the author and a reference to the note in which the title description was given in full for the first time.

When using full book titles in notes the place of publication: publisher and year of publication are put between brackets.

For instance:

  • 4. E.J. Sluijter, De lof der schilderkunst: Over schilderijen van Gerrit Dou (1613-1675) en een traktaat van Philips Angel uit 1642, Zeven Provinciën reeks 7. (Hilversum: Verloren, 1993), 4-9.

And then:

  • 8. Sluijter 1993, op. cit. (note 4), 6.

In practice, you can find note lists such as this one:

  • 1. C.W. Fock, "Werkelijkheid of schijn: Het beeld van het Hollandse interieur in de zeventiende-eeuwse genreschilderkunst", Oud Holland 112 (1998): 187-246.

  • 2. Ibid., 215-219.

  • 3. E.J. Sluijter, De lof der schilderkunst: Over schilderijen van Gerrit Dou (1613-1675) en een traktaat van Philips Angel uit 1642, Zeven Provinciën reeks 7. (Hilversum: Verloren, 1993), 4-9.

  • 4. Ibid., 6-8.

  • 5. Fock, op. cit. (note 1), 189-192.

  • 6. Sluijter, op cit. (note 3), 68.

  • 7. Ibid., 92.

Never refer to the same page of the same publication in two consecutive notes, but rather combine them into one note.


The longer the lists of notes the less convenient the use of op.cit., because the reader must search back for the note with the full title information with each op.cit. note. Therefore within the recent edition of the Chicago Style the use of op.cit. is not encouraged. You can use the short title form instead. 

3.5 Bibliogaphy
3.6 Quotes and notes
Note number, footnotes and endnotes
Notes with full titles
Notes with abbreviated title description
Explanatory and reference notes

3.7 Appendices

3.7 Appendices

In the body of the text and in the notes, you quote from source materials, such as letters or archival records. If the text is longer (than half a page), it is better to include the text as an appendix. It must be a relevant addition to your paper.

If the quote can easily be found in the literature, then a simple reference will suffice. 

Appendices are numbered and added as the last textual part of your paper, after the notes, if you are using endnotes, and otherwise directly after the body of the text (see page 15).

3.8 Illustrations
Visual arts/craftwork/architecture
Origins of the illustrations

3.8 Illustrations

Your text will usually be accompanied by illustrations. You can include them in two places: either in the body of the text, but they must be directly related to the text, so on the page where they are discussed, or at the end of the textual part of your paper, so after the endnotes, bibliography and appendices (if any) (see page 15).

Provide each illustration with a number and an original caption written by you. Do not copy the caption from a book or article.


In the text, refer to an illustration in the following way: "A standing Christ figure takes a central place in the central portal of the west facade of the Amiens Cathedral (Fig. 12)” so don't use (see Fig. 12). Don't say: "Figure 12 clearly shows that a standing Christ figure takes a central place in the central portal of the west facade of the Amiens Cathedral" or (see Fig. 12).


Titles of paintings should, in principle, be translated into English. Sometimes titles of famous artworks are so established, that they are always mentioned in their original language, for instance: Manet's Le déjeuner sur l’herbe, Picasso’s Les demoiselles d’Avignon or Velasquez’ Las meñinas. You don't have to translate these. These are exceptions and it is hard to indicate for which paintings this is true. It's mostly a matter of instinct.


While collecting the materials for your paper, write down all the information you need to create a caption and do not forget to write down where exactly you found the illustration (in which photo collection or in which book or article).

In principle, each included illustration should be mentioned in your text. Avoid including illustrations for decorative purposes.


Visual arts/craftwork/architecture

In the caption, include the following information: 

  • who (is the creator, if known; is the work signed and/or dated?);

  • what (is portrayed? Write down the title in italics: that creates a clear distinction between the creator and the title. Always capitalize the first word of the title of an art work);

  • when (was it created? Dates? For architectural photos: "This photo shows the situation before the restoration in 1889");

  • how (was it created; list the materials/techniques: oil on panel or canvas, etching, engraving, mahogany, gilded silver, etc.);

  • how big (is it?: dimensions) For two-dimensional objects (paintings, prints, drawings and photographs) the order is always: height x width. You do not have to mention these terms specifically. For three-dimensional objects (architecture, craftwork, sculpture) always indicate three dimensions: height x width x depth. Again, you don't have to mention the order of the terms. Sometimes it can be useful to mention the diameter. The symbol for diameter is: Ø. If an object is round, you mention the largest height and the largest diameter. Sometimes it can be useful to mention exactly what diameter is being referred to, for instance: "diameter at the top ... cm."

Keep in mind that dimensions in English books are always set in inches and feet. You cannot copy these dimensions; they must be converted to centimetres. An inch is 2.54 centimetre and a foot is 30.48 centimetre; a foot is 12 inches.

  • where (is it located? List the city and collection (if any). Put this information between parentheses.

  • inventory number, usually abbreviated to: (if known). Every object in a museum collection always has a permanent inventory number.


For instance:

  • Johannes Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, ca. 1660, oil on canvas, 46.5 x 40 cm., (The Hague, Mauritshuis, 670).

  • Henry Moore, King and Queen, bronze, 1952-1953, 170 x 150 x 95 cm., (Antwerp, Middelheim Open Air Sculpture Museum, 44).

  • Creator/designer

  • Object

  • Signature

  • Dates

  • Materials and technique

  • Dimensions

  • Location + inventory number.

  • For instance:

  • Bowl, so-called klapmuts, ca. 1685, polychrome Delftware, painted in blue, red and green, height 15 cm, rim Ø 28.5 cm, (Delft, Museum Prinsenhof, K476).


  • Designer

  • Object/type of building

  • Name of the building

  • Place

  • Street name and number (if known)

  • Date of the build

  • Side of the building pictured

  • Angle from where the photo was taken

  • Date of the picture.


  • For instance:

  • H.P. Berlage, Koopmansbeurs, Amsterdam, Damrak/Beursplein, 1897-1903. Exterior: facing the facade and the left sidewalls from the southwest. Image from ca. 1935.

  • In floor plans and situation overviews, show the orientation with a north arrow or compass.

Origin of the illustrations 

Generally, the illustrations will have been found in the works of others. So you must mention from which image database, website, book or article the photo, illustration etc. in question was taken. Create a list of the origin of the illustrations and add it to your paper, after the illustrations if you opted to list them all together at the end and otherwise after the endnotes and appendices (if any) (see Format Final Paper, page 15). 

If you copied illustrations from a publication, you can, in your paper, suffice with a shortened version of the title (last name of the author(s) plus the year of publication), plus the original illustration number. Just as with notes, you can look up the full title in the attached bibliography. 

In an article manuscript, the photographer's name is usually added to the caption within parentheses.

If you took a photo yourself, you add: 'Photo author', followed by the date you took the photo.

Do not forget to list the origin of the illustration on the cover of your paper (if any).

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